There was just a very deep earthquake along a small subduction zone in the Mediterranean Sea. This subduction zone is formed along the southern coast of Italy where the Ionian plate subducts to the north. This subduction zone is part of the Alpide Belt, a convergent boundary that extends from the Straits of Gibraltar to Australia. The Alpide Belt is responsibel for some of the largest mountain peaks in the world (in the European Alps and the Himalayas). Here is the USGS website for today’s M 5.8 earthquake.
In the past few months, there have been a series of earthquakes in Italy, Greece, and Albania. Here are my Earthquake Reports for those earthquakes.
- 2015.11.17 M 6.5 Greece
- 2016.10.16 M 5.3 Greece/Albania
- 2016.08.24 M 6.2 Italy
- 2016.10.26 M 6.1 & M 5.5 Italy
Below is my interpretive map that shows the epicenter, along with the shaking intensity contours. These contours use the Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) scale. The MMI is a qualitative measure of shaking intensity. More on the MMI scale can be found here and here. This is based upon a computer model estimate of ground motions, different from the “Did You Feel It?” estimate of ground motions that is actually based on real observations. There is a legend for MMI intensities in the upper part of the interpretive poster below. The contours are difficult to see, but there is a small region (above the label for the Tyrrhenian Sea) of MMI II. There was only one felt report for this earthquake, probably due to its depth.
I placed a moment tensor / focal mechanism legend on the poster. There is more material from the USGS web sites about moment tensors and focal mechanisms (the beach ball symbols). Both moment tensors and focal mechanisms are solutions to seismologic data that reveal two possible interpretations for fault orientation and sense of motion. One must use other information, like the regional tectonics, to interpret which of the two possibilities is more likely. Today’s earthquake is likely due to extension in the subducting Ionian plate.
I include some inset figures and maps.
- In the upper right corner I include a map that shows the USGS epicenters for earthquakes with magnitudes M ≥ 4.5 from 1900-2016. There is an animation of these earthquakes below. The epicenters are plotted with the same colors as the main map (the depth color legend is in the upper left corner). Today’s earthquake has an hypocentral depth of 457 km, so I plot this as a purple star.
- In the lower right corner is a cross section showing the crust, lithospheric mantle, and asthenospheric mantle in the region (Dilek, 2006). The location of the cross section is located on the map as designated by a dashed orange line labeled C – C’. The cross section shows a volcanic arc and I have labeled this arc on the map, the “Aeolian Arc.” I just love aeoli! yum.
- To the left of this cross section, I include a map from Peccerillo et al. (2013) that displays a simplified view of the plate configuration in this region.
- In the lower left corner, I include a low-angle oblique figure of this subduction zone as presented by Doglioni et al. (2012). These authors present research that suggests that the hinge of the subduction zone is migrating over time.
- In the upper left corner I include a map showing the seismicity plotted vs. depth (using color) from the European-Mediterranean Seismological Center. Magnitudes of these earthquakes is represented by the circle diameter. I place a purple triangle in the location of today’s earthquake.
- I present some of the inset figures, as well as some additional figures, with their original figure captions in blockquotes.
- This map shows a view of the regional tectonics (Dilek, 2006). The subduction zones and thrust faults in southern Europe and north Arabia are all part of the Alpide Belt. The locations of the cross sections shown below are designated by orange labeled lines. I include their evaluation of these main collision zones (Table 1).
- These are the cross sections from Dilek (2006). As noted above, the one of note for this earthquake is cross section C.
- (A) Eastern Alps. The collision of Adria with Europe produced a bidivergent crustal architecture with both NNW- and SSE-directed nappe structures that involved Tertiary molasse deposits, with deep-seated thrust faults that exhumed lower crustal rocks. The Austro-Alpine units north of the Peri-Adriatic lineament represent the allochthonous outliers of the Adriatic upper crust tectonically resting on the underplating European crust. The Penninic ophiolites mark the remnants of the Mesozoic ocean basin (Meliata). The Oligocene granitoids between the Tauern window and the Peri-Adriatic lineament represent the postcollisional intrusions in the eastern Alps. Modified from Castellarin et al. (2006), with additional data from Coward and Dietrich (1989); Lüschen et al. (2006); Ortner et al. (2006).
- (B) Northern Apennines. Following the collision of Adria with the Apenninic platform and Europe in the late Miocene, the westward subduction of the Adriatic lithosphere and the slab roll-back (eastward) produced a broad extensional regime in the west (Apenninic back-arc extension) affecting the Alpine orogenic crust, and also a frontal thrust belt to the east. Lithospheric-scale extension in this broad back-arc environment above the west-dipping Adria lithosphere resulted in the development of a large boudinage structure in the European (Alpine) lithosphere. Modified from Doglioni et al. (1999), with data from Spakman and Wortel (2004); Zeck (1999).
- (C) Western Mediterranean–Southern Apennines–Calabria. The westward subduction of the Ionian seafloor as part of Adria since ca. 23 Ma and the associated slab roll-back have induced eastward-progressing extension and lithospheric necking through time, producing a series of basins. Rifting of Sardinia from continental Europe developed the Gulf of Lion passive margin and the Algero-Provencal basin (ca. 15–10 Ma), then the Vavilov and Marsili sub-basins in the broader Tyrrhenian basin to the east (ca. 5 Ma to present). Eastward-migrating lithospheric-scale extension and
necking and asthenospheric upwelling have produced locally well-developed alkaline volcanism (e.g., Sardinia). Slab tear or detachment in the Calabria segment of Adria, as imaged through seismic tomography (Spakman and Wortel, 2004), is probably responsible for asthenospheric upwelling and alkaline volcanism in southern Calabria and eastern Sicily (e.g., Mount Etna). Modified from Séranne (1999), with additional data from Spakman et al. (1993); Doglioni et al. (1999); Spakman and Wortel (2004); Lentini et al. (this volume).
- (D) Southern Apennines–Albanides–Hellenides. Note the break where the Adriatic Sea is located between the western and eastern sections along this traverse. The Adria plate and the remnant Ionian oceanic lithosphere underlie the Apenninic-Maghrebian orogenic belt. The Alpine-Tethyan and Apulian platform units are telescoped along ENE-vergent thrust faults. The Tyrrhenian Sea opened up in the latest Miocene as a back-arc basin behind the Apenninic-Maghrebian mountain belt. The Aeolian volcanoes in the Tyrrhenian Sea represent the volcanic arc system in this subduction-collision zone environment. Modified from Lentini et al. (this volume). The eastern section of this traverse across the Albanides-Hellenides in the northern Balkan Peninsula shows a bidivergent crustal architecture, with the Jurassic Tethyan ophiolites (Mirdita ophiolites in Albania and Western Hellenic ophiolites in Greece) forming the highest tectonic nappe, resting on the Cretaceous and younger flysch deposits of the Adria affinity to the west and the Pelagonia affinity to the east. Following the emplacement of the Mirdita- Hellenic ophiolites onto the Pelagonian ribbon continent in the Early Cretaceous, the Adria plate collided with Pelagonia-Europe obliquely starting around ca. 55 Ma. WSW-directed thrusting, developed as a result of this oblique collision, has been migrating westward into the peri-Adriatic depression. Modified from Dilek et al. (2005).
- (E) Dinarides–Pannonian basin–Carpathians. The Carpathians developed as a result of the diachronous collision of the Alcapa and Tsia lithospheric blocks, respectively, with the southern edge of the East European platform during the early to middle Miocene (Nemcok et al., 1998; Seghedi et al., 2004). The Pannonian basin evolved as a back-arc basin above the eastward retreating European platform slab (Royden, 1988). Lithospheric-scale necking and boudinage development occurred synchronously with this extension and resulted in the isolation of continental fragments (e.g., the Apuseni mountains) within a broadly extensional Pannonian basin separating the Great Hungarian Plain and the Transylvanian subbasin. Steepening and tearing of the west-dipping slab may have caused asthenospheric flow and upwelling, decompressional melting, and alkaline volcanism (with an ocean island basalt–like mantle source) in the Eastern Carpathians. Modified from Royden (1988), with additional data from Linzer (1996); Nemcok et al. (1998); Doglioni et al. (1999); Seghedi et al. (2004).
- (F) Arabia-Eurasia collision zone and the Turkish-Iranian plateau. The collision of Arabia with Eurasia around 13 Ma resulted in (1) development of a thick orogenic crust via intracontinental convergence and shortening and a high plateau and (2) westward escape of a lithospheric block (the Anatolian microplate) away from the collision front. The Arabia plate and the Bitlis-Pütürge ribbon continent were probably amalgamated earlier (ca. the Eocene) via a separate collision event within the Neo-Tethyan realm. BSZ—Bitlis suture zone; EKP—Erzurum-Kars plateau. A slab break-off and the subsequent removal of the lithospheric mantle (lithospheric delamination) beneath the eastern Anatolian accretionary complex caused asthenospheric upwelling and extensive melting, leading to continental volcanism and regional uplift, which has contributed to the high mean elevation of the Turkish-Iranian plateau. The Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment results have shown that the crustal thickness here is ~ 45–48 km and that the Turkish-Iranian plateau is devoid of mantle lithosphere. The collision-induced convergence has been accommodated by active diffuse north-south shortening and oblique-slip faults dispersing crustal blocks both to the west and the east. The late Miocene through Plio-Quaternary volcanism appears to have become more alkaline toward the south in time. The Pleistocene Karacadag shield volcano in the Arabian foreland represents a local fissure eruption associated with intraplate extension. Data from Pearce et al. (1990); Keskin (2003); Sandvol et al. (2003); S¸engör et al. (2003).
- (G) Africa-Eurasia collision zone and the Aegean extensional province. The African lithosphere is subducting beneath Eurasia at the Hellenic trench. The Mediterranean Ridge represents a lithospheric block between the Africa and Eurasian plate (Hsü, 1995). The Aegean extensional province straddles the Anatolide-Tauride and Sakarya continental blocks, which collided in the Eocene. NAF—North Anatolian fault. South-transported Tethyan ophiolite nappes were derived from the suture zone between these two continental blocks. Postcollisional granitic intrusions (Eocone and Oligo-Miocene, shown in red) occur mainly north of the suture zone and at the southern edge of the Sakarya continent. Postcollisional volcanism during the Eocene–Quaternary appears to have migrated southward and to have changed from calc-alkaline to alkaline in composition through time. Lithospheric-scale necking, reminiscent of the Europe-Apennine-Adria collision system, and associated extension are also important processes beneath the Aegean and have resulted in the exhumation of core complexes, widespread upper crustal attenuation, and alkaline and mid-ocean ridge basalt volcanism. Slab steepening and slab roll-back appear to have been at work resulting in subduction zone magmatism along the Hellenic arc.
- This map shows a low-angle oblique view of this subduction zone (Doglioni et al. (2012). Their paper focuses on the evidence for the tear in the subduction zone that forms between Sicily and Calabria.
Simplified tectonic map of the Mediterranean region showing the plate boundaries, collisional zones, and directions of extension and tectonic transport. Red lines Athrough G show the approximate profile lines for the geological traverses depicted in Figure 2. MHSZ—mid-Hungarian shear zone; MP—Moesian platform; RM—Rhodope massif; IAESZ— Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone; IPS—Intra-Pontide suture zone; ITS—inner Tauride suture zone; NAFZ—north Anatolian fault zone; KB—Kirsehir block; EKP—Erzurum-Kars plateau; TIP—Turkish-Iranian plateau.
Simplified tectonic cross-sections across various segments of the broader Alpine orogenic belt.
Block diagram showing the geometry of the Apennines-Calabrian subduction zone, the differential advancement/retreat of the slab hinge relative to the Sardinia upper plate, in comparison with the Sicilian segment, and the state of stress at the surface. The Messina Strait area is located at the transfer zone where the two tectonic mechanisms partly overlap.
Here is a video of the historic seismicity of this region (I prepared this in August, but it is still useful today).
- First a static map showing all seismicity, plotted with color representing depth, for magnitudes greater than or equal to M 4.5.
- Here is a link to the embedded video below (5 MB mp4). Here is the query I used to make this map and video. Here is the kml file.
- Dilek, Y., 2006. Collision tectonics of the Mediterranean region: Causes and consequences, in Dilek, Y., and Pavlides, S., eds., Postcollisional tectonics and magmatism in the Mediterranean region and Asia: Geological Society of America Special Paper 409, p. 1–13, doi: 10.1130/2006.2409(01).
- Doglioni, C., Ligi, M., Scrocca, D., Bigi, S., Bortoluzzi, G., Carminati, E., Cuffaro, M., D’Oriano, F., Forleo, V., Muccini, F., and Rigussi, F., 2012. The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): Insights from new seismic reflection data in Scientific Reports, v. 2, doi: 10.1038/srep00970
- Peccerillo, A., De Astis, G., Faraone, D., Forni, F., and Frezzoti, M.L., 2013. Compositional variations of magmas in the Aeolian arc: implications for petrogenesis and geodynamics in Lucchi, F., Peccerillo, A., Keller, J., Tranne, C. A. & Rossi, P. L. (eds) 2013. The Aeolian Islands Volcanoes. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, v. 37, p. 491–510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/M37.15